The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins are an extensive, wide-ranging superfamily of transmembrane signaling receptors. At Novus Biologicals, we are constantly updating our antibody catalog to take account of the latest advances in G-protein research, with an extensive range of GPCR antibodies.
Also known as seven-transmembrane domain (7TM) receptors, the GPCR family are eukaryotic proteins which react to extracellular molecular stimuli by initiating one of two main internal signal transduction pathways – the cAMP or phosphatidylinositol signal pathway – leading to a cellular response.
GPCR receptors are activated by a diverse variety of ligands, including neurotransmitters, pheromones, odors and medicinal drugs. Binding causes the GPCR molecule to undergo a conformational change to a GEF-like factor, allowing activation of a G-protein via an exchange of bound GDP and GTP, and dissociation of the G-protein’s alpha subunit. This initiates further intracellular signaling, and/or interaction with functional proteins.
The GPCR antibody database covers a diverse number of physiological processes, with proteins involved in sight, smell; mood regulation; inflammation; the immune response; the autonomic nervous system and cellular density. Rhodopsin, for example, translates electromagnetic radiation into cellular signals via photoisomerization of 11-cis-retinal, while olfactory proteins such as the OR, VNR and TAAR receptors react to odorants and pheromones.
With an estimated 800 predicted genes in the GPCR superfamily, the antibodies are widely used in the field of neuroscience. In the mammalian brain, GPCR receptors are known to bind several neurotransmitters governing behavior and mood, including glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and GABA. In addition, GPCR pathways regulate both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, being involved in many automatic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure and digestion. GPCR chemokine receptors regulate intercellular signaling of the immune system, while the histamine receptors bind inflammatory mediators and activate cells involved in the inflammatory response.
There are three main classes of GPCR receptors (six in total) of which the largest by far is Class A, the Rhodopsin-like receptors, over half of which encode olfactory proteins. Others include the Secretin, Cyclic AMP and Frizzled/Smoothened receptors, all of which are well represented in our antibody catalog.